Efectos del apoyo familiar, amigos y de escuela sobre el bullying y bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes de nivel secundario de Chile y Brasil

Rafael Miranda Ayala, Juan Oyanedel, Javier Torres

Resumen


Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de los apoyos percibido por los estudiantes sobre las experiencias de bullying y el bienestar subjetivo; asimismo evalúa si la experiencia de bullying media la relación entre los apoyos percibidos y el bienestar subjetivo, para ello, se evaluaron a 1 832 adolescentes de Chile y Brasil que forman parte de la muestra del Children´s World. Análisis de correlaciones y modelo de ecuaciones estructurales fueron realizados, teniendo como resultados que los apoyos tienen un efecto significativo tanto para reducir el bullying como para promover el bienestar subjetivo en los estudiantes, sin embargo, no hay un efecto mediador del bullying sobre el bienestar subjetivo; asimismo para el caso de Chile (b = -0,31, p<0,05) y Brasil (b = -0,20, p<0,05) el apoyo de la escuela es un predictor importante para reducir el bullying. Para el caso de bienestar subjetivo, el apoyo de los estudiantes (b = 0,30, p<0,05) tiene una mayor influencia en Chile, en Brasil el apoyo de la escuela (b = 0,46, p<0,05) predice mejor el bienestar subjetivo; el apoyo social tiene un efecto positivo en el bienestar subjetivo de los niños y las niñas, tanto a nivel familiar, como escolar y de pares. Las diferencias del efecto que tienen estos tipos de apoyo que los participantes perciben como más importante son, el apoyo de la escuela, la familia y la de pares. En conclusión, los apoyos percibidos importan conforme a lo señalado en el modelo socio ecológico, tanto en el mediano plazo para reducir el bullying y a largo plazo para promover el bienestar subjetivo en los estudiantes.


Palabras clave


Bienestar subjetivo; bullying; apoyo social; apoyo de familia; apoyo de escuela; apoyo de pares

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